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薄冰英语语法 Unit 10 不定式

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普乐书店 发表于 2011-7-15 19:15:11 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
第一章、不定式(短语)作主语、表语、宾语、补足语
1. 不定式(短语)作主语
不定式作主语时既可位于句首,又可用先行词it作形式主语。不定式短语作主语时,为了保持句子平衡,往往用it作形式主语,而把不定式短语置于谓语动词之后。
To improve our teaching method is very important.
改进我们的教学方法是非常重要的。
It would be a waste of time to look up every new word as it comes along.
碰到生词就查词典是很浪费时间的。
It would take some 100 workers a year’s time to complete the project.
完成这项工程大约需要一百名工人一年的时间。
2. 不定式(短语)作表语
His ambition is to become a successful scientist.
他的抱负是要成为一名成功的科学家。
The primary reason why the Constition requires a census every ten years is to provide a basis for the apportionment of representatives among the states.
宪法要求每10年进行一次人口普查,其主要原因是为各州之间众议院议员的比例分配提供一个基础。
3. 不定式(短语)作动词宾语
(1) 有些及物动词常用动词不定式作宾语。这些动词有:
affored 担负得起agree 同意arrange 安排ask 要求attempt 试图
beg 乞求begin 开始care 介意choose 愿意claim 声称
consent同意continue继续contrive发明dare 敢decide决定
decline谢绝demand要求deserv 值得desire希望determine决心
endeavor尽力expect期望fail未能fear害怕forget忘记
guarantee 保证happen 碰巧help 帮助hesitate犹豫hope希望
intend 企图learn 学会long 渴望manage设法mean意欲
need 需要offer 提出petition 请求plan 计划pledge 保证
plot 密谋pray 祈祷prepare 准备pretend假装promise许诺
refuse拒绝resolve解决seek寻求swear发誓think想起
tend倾向于threaten威胁undertake承担venture冒险volunteer志愿
vow 宣誓want 想要wish 希望
如:
They decided to change their mind.
他们决定改变主意。
I can’t afford to live in a detached house.
我住不起独门独院的房子。
(2) 疑问词+动词不定式作宾语的动词有:
ask 询问consider 考虑decide 决定discover 发现
discuss 讨论explain 解释find out 查明forget 忘记
inquire 打听know 知道learn 学会remember 记得
show 演示tell 说出think 考虑understand 懂得
wonder 想知道
如:
I don’t know what to do next.
我不知道下一步该干什么。
He found out where to buy fruit cheaply.
他打听出在哪儿买水果便宜。
(3) 不定式(短语)作复合宾语中的宾语:
不定式(短语)在consider, find, make, regard, think等动词后作复合宾语中的宾语时,通常用先行词it作形式宾语:
I find it interesting to study English.
我觉得学英语很有趣。
The boy feels it difficult to answer the question.
那男孩感到回答这个问题很困难。
4.不定式(短语)作介词宾语
不定式(短语)作介词宾语主要用于作介词except和but的宾语。
The old man’s son did nothing but play games.
老人的儿子除了玩游戏之外,什么都不干。
He wanted nothing but to stay there.
他只想待在那儿,别的什么都不想。
但要注意:如果句中的except或but之前有实义动词do的限定形式或非限定形式,其宾语为不带to的不定式,否则,其宾语为带to的不定式。
5. 不定式(短语)作宾语补足语
(1) 动词不定式可用作复合宾语中的宾语补足语。常跟不定式作宾补的动词有:
advise 劝告allow 允许ask 要求beg 请求
cause 促使compel 强迫convince 使信服command 指挥
direct 指导enable 使能够encourage 鼓励expect 期望
feel 觉得force 迫使get 使得hate 不喜欢
have 使hear 听见help 帮助hire 雇请
inspire 鼓舞intend 打算要invite 邀请instruct 指示
lead 引导let 让listen(to) 听look(at) 看
make 使得notice 注意到observe 观察order 命令
permit 允许persuade 说服press 迫使remind 提醒
request 请求teach 教tell 告诉urge 激励
want 想要watch 注视warn 警告wish 希望
如:
My English techer advised me to buy a better dictionary.
我的英语老师建议我买本好一点的词典。
I’d prefer you to stay out of the dispute.
我宁愿你不要介入这场争论。
(2) 在feel, have, hear, let, listen to, look at, make, notice, observe, see, watch等动词后面,复合宾语中动词不定式的标记to 通常被省略。动词help后的不定式的to可以省去,也可以保留。如:
I saw her enter the cinema.
我看见她进了电影院。
A conductor uses signals and gestures to let the musicians know when to play carious parts of a composition.
乐队指挥使用信号和手势让音乐家们知道乐曲的各个部分何时演奏。
6. 不定式(短语)作主语补足语
(1) 要求不定式作宾语补足语的大部分动词(have,let,motice,watch等除外)都可以作被动句中的谓语,这样,在主动句中作宾语补足语的不定式(短语)便在被动句中作主语补足语。如:
The room was found to be empty.
那个房间被发现是空的。(to be 是主语补语)
The young man was considered to have great promise.
这个青年被认为大有前途。(to have是主语补语)
值得注意的是,作宾语补足语的不带to的不定式在被动句中作主语补足语时须带to。如:
They were made to wait for hours.
他们被迫等了好几个小时。
(2) 不定式(短语)在“主—动—that从句”的被动句中作主语补足语。如:
It is reported to be true.
据报导那是真的。(to be是主语补语)
He is said to be from New Zealand.
据说他是新西兰人。(to be是主语补语)
7. 不定式(短语)作形容词补语
有不少形容词(包括已变成形容词的分词)可后接不定式。有的语法家将这种不定式也叫做宾语。如:
I am very glad to see you.
我见到您很高兴。
The students are sorry to leave.
学生为离去而难过。
He is sure to come.
他一定会来的。
Are we likely to arrive in time?
我们能够及时到达吗?
但要注意:这样的形容词多是表示思想感情的。除上述形容词外,还有able, afraid, anxious,careful,content, foolish, inclined, prepared, ready, slow, willing等。

第二章、不定式(短语)作定语、状语、独立成分
1. 不定式(短语)作定语
(1) 被修饰的名词或代词与作定语的不定式之间存在着逻辑上的主谓关系。如:
She has a brother to help her.
她有个哥哥帮她。
The question will be discussed at the conference shortly to open in Beijing.
这个问题将在不久于北京召开的会议上讨论。
The next train to arrive was from New York.
下一列到站的火车是从纽约开来的。
He was always the first to come and last to leave the office.
他总是第一个到办公室,最后一个离开。(first与last之后省去了person)
(2) 被修饰的名词或代词与作定语的不定式之间存在着逻辑上的动宾关系。如:
It was a game to remember.
那是一场令人难忘的球赛。
The manager has too many things to do.
经理要做的事太多了。
I have nothing to say on this question.
在这个问题上,我没有什么话要说。
(3) 不定式(短语)作某些抽象名词的定语。
The sales manager had every reason to complain.
销售经理有充足的理由表示不满。
My cousin expressed his intention to resign.
我表兄表达了辞职的打算。
I could see her eagerness to see you.
我看得出她渴望见到你。
His failure to pass the examination surprised us.
他的落榜使我们吃惊。
That diplomat is reputed for his ability to speak four languages.
那位外交官以能讲四种语言而闻名。
(4) “介词+关系代词+不定式(短语)”作定语。如:
The employer has a lot of people from whom to select.
雇主可以在许多人中进行挑选。
A notebook is a book in which to write notes.
笔记本用来记笔记。
I must buy a hammer with which to nail down the box.
我必须买一把锤子钉箱子。
(5)“不定式(短语)+介词”作定语
I need a pen to write with.
我需要一支笔写字。
Give me some paper to write on.
给我一些纸写字。
① 作定语的不定式如果是不及物动词,或者不定式所修饰的名词或代词是不定式动作的地点、工具等,不定式后面须加相应的介词。如:
She is looking for a room to live in. 她在寻找一间房子住。
There is nothing to worry about. 没有什么可担心的。
但是,不定式所修饰的名词如果是time, place或way,不定式后面的介词习惯上可省去。如:
He had no place to live. 他没有居住的地方。
② 在there+be这一句型中,动词不定式作定语时可能出现动词不定式的被动式,其含义与主动式基本相同。但当说话人考虑的是必须有人去完成某件事时,不定式用主动形式,如果说话人强调的是事情本身必须完成,则用被动形式。如:
There are many books to read/ to be read. 有好多书要读。
There’s plenty of work to do.(somebody has to do the work.)
There’s plenty of work to be done.(The work has to be done.)
请注意下面两个句子含义的区别:
There is nothing to do.(We have nothing to do now.)
(意为无事可做,感到十分无聊。)
There is nothing to be done. (We can do nothing now.)
(意为某东西坏了,无法使之恢复正常。)
2. 不定式(短语)作状语
(1) 不定式(短语)作目的状语
Every morning he gets up very early to exercise.
每天早晨他早早起床去锻炼身体。
A fuel is a sucstance used to generate light, heat or energy.
燃料是一种用来产生光、热或能量的物质。
Dams are used to control flooding, provide water for irrigation, and generating electricity for the surrounding area.
水坝被用于防洪、提供灌溉用水、并为周围地区发电。
He hesitated in order to/so as to choose the right word.
他迟疑了一下,以便选择合适的字眼。
(2) 不定式(短语)作结果状语
① 不定式作结果状语时,往往仅限于learn(得知), find(发现), see(看见), hear(听见),to be told(被告知),
make(使得)等几个具有终止含义的动词。如:
Sam returned home to learn his son had gone to the countryside.
萨姆回家后才知道他的儿子已去了乡下。
A few years later we came to our home to find that our home town had greatly changed.
几年后我们回到家里,发现家乡的面貌大大地改变了。
② 不定式(短语)也可用enough和too...to结构表示结果。如:
Uncle Tom was too ill to attend the meeting.
汤姆叔叔病得很重,无法出席会议。
He is old enough to join the army.
他够参军年龄了。
You are old enough to take care of yourself now.
你长大了,足能照料你自己了。
The boy is too short to reach the top of the shelf.
那男孩太矮了,够不着书架的顶层。
Attention:
(ⅰ) 某些形容词在”too…to…”结构中没有否定的含义,而是表示肯定,这类形容词有anxious,apt, delighted, eager, easy, glad, kind, pleased, ready, surprised, willing等。如:
He is too ready to find fault.他老是爱挑毛病。
She was too surprised to see how angry her father was.看到爸爸那么生气,她非常吃惊。
(ⅱ) 在not, never, only, all ,but等后的“too…to…”结构中,“too”的含义为“very”,不定式没有否定含义。如:
I’m only too pleased to help you. 我非常愿意帮助你。
It’s never too late to learn. 活到老,学到老。
(ⅲ) 动词不定式和only连用时,常表示未预料到的结果。如:
He went to the station hurriedly only to find the train had left.
他匆匆地赶到车站,却发现火车已经离开了。
I went to see my friend only to learn he was in hospital. 我去看我的朋友,不料他住院了。
He survived the crash only to die in the desert. 他幸存于坠机事故,结果却死在沙漠里。
③ 不定式(短语)在“so+形容词/副词+as”之后作结果状语。
She wouldn’t be so careless as to forget her luggage. 她不可能粗心到忘了带行李的程度。
The house is so high and narrow as to resemble a tower. 这房子又高又窄,像一座塔。
④ 不定式(短语)在“such(+名词短语)+as”之后作结果状语。
His indifference is such as to make one despair. 他如此冷淡,令人感到绝望。
Baker can’t have done such a terrible thing as to keep you waiting for so long. 贝克不可能做出这么糟糕的事让你等了这么久。
(3) 不定式(短语)作方式状语
不定式(短语)作方式状语时,前面由as if / as though引导:
He opened his mouth as if to speak. 他张开嘴,好像要说话。
She stood up as if to leave. 她站了起来,好像要离开。
3. 不定式(短语)作独立成分
(1) 不定式(短语)可以作句子的插入语。
To begin with,I do not like its colour.
首先,我不喜欢它的颜色。
To tell the truth,the film was a great disappointment to me.
说实在的,那部影片使我大为失望。
To make a long story short,we agreed to disagree.
长话短说,我们同意各自保留不同的看法。
How time flies,to be sure!
时光真是过得快啊!
The dog is,so to speak,a member of the family.
那狗可以说是家庭的一员了。
(2) 常见的用作插入语的不定式短语有:
to be brief简言之to be exact确切地说to be frank坦率地说
to be sure肯定地说to begin with首先to conclude最后
  第三章、不定式的时态、复合结构及省略
1. “疑问词(who, what, which, when, where, how)+不定式(短语)”结构
(1) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作主语。如:
When to start has not been decided.
何时动身尚未决定。
How to use this new technique will be discussed tomorrow.
如何利用这一新技术将在明天讨论。
(2) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作表语。如:
The trouble is how to get in touch with him.
问题是如何同他取得联系。
The difficulty was how to cross the river.
困难在于如何过河。
(3) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作动词宾语。如:
I don’ t know what to do. 我不知道该怎么办。
The policeman did not know whether to go there or not.
警察不知是否该去那儿。
He told me which way to take. 他告诉我该走哪条路。
(4) “疑问词+不定式(短语)”作介词宾语。如:
They were concerned with how to solve the problem. 他们关心的是如何解决问题。
I have no idea of how to do it. 我不知道如何做此事。
2. 不定式时态的形式(一般式、进行式、完成式和被动式)
(1) 不定式的一般式通常表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生或在其后发生。如:
I often hear Dick play the piano in the next room.
我常常听见迪克在隔壁弹钢琴。 (hear与play两个动作同时发生)
They saw him go out.
他们看见他出去了。 (saw与go out同时发生)
(2) 但在多数情况下,动词不定式一般式表示的动作发生在谓语动词表示的动作之后。如:
He hopes to become a university student this year.
他希望今年能成为一名大学生。 (to become这个动作发生在hope之后)
They decided to plant more trees this spring.
他们决定今年春天栽更多的树。 (to plant这个动作发生在decided之后)
(3) 不定式的进行式通常表示其动作与谓语动词的动作同时发生。
My supervisor happened to be correcting my dissertation when I came in.
当我进来的时候,碰巧我的导师在修改我的论文。
They seemed to be discussing something important.
他们似乎在讨论重要的事情。
(4) 不定式的完成式通常表示其动作在谓语动词的动作之前完成。如:
I’m sorry to have kept you waiting.
很抱歉,让你久等了。 (to have kept发生在am所表示的时间之前)
Robert is said to have written a book on war on Iraq.
听说罗伯特写了一本关于伊拉克战争的书。
(to have written 发生在is said 所表示的时间之前)
(5) 不定式的被动式表示其逻辑主语为不定式动作的承受者。如:
It’s a great honour to be invited to Mary’s birthday party.
被邀请参加玛丽的生日聚会十分荣幸。 (作主语)
No harm seems to have been done.
似乎并没有造成损害。 (作表语)
I wish to be sent to work in the country.
我希望被派往乡下工作。 (作宾语)
In 1924 Nellie Taylor Ross of Wyoming became the first woman to be elected governor in the United States.
1924年,怀俄明州的内利?泰勒?罗斯成为美国第一位当选州长的妇女。(作定语)
I had to shout to be heard.
我大声呼喊以便能被听得见。 (作状语)
He did not like his intention to be laughed at.
他不喜欢他的意图被人取笑。(作宾语补足语)
3. 不定式复合结构
不定式可以与其逻辑主语一起构成不定式复合结构,其形式:for+名词/人称代词宾格+带to的不定式。其中的名词或人称代词宾格与不定式构成逻辑上的主谓关系。不定式复合结构的句法作用如下:
(1) 不定式复合结构作主语。如:
For a child to do that job is just inconceivable.
让一个孩子做这项工作真是不可思议。
For the goods to be packed in strong cases is necessary.
把货物包装在坚实的箱子里是必要的。
(2) 不定式复合结构作表语。如:
That is for you to decide.
那个由你决定。
A solution would be for shops to open at noon and close about 9 p.m..
办法是商店中午开门,晚9点关门。
These books are for children to read.
这些书是给孩子们读的。
(3) 不定式复合结构作宾语。如:
It’s time for us to go. 我们该走了。
That would be a matter for the people to decide.
(4) 不定式复合结构作状语。
不定式复合结构作目的状语。如:
The gentleman stood aside for her to pass.
那位先生靠边站让她过去。
He opened the window (in order) for the fresh air to come in.
他打开窗户让新鲜空气进来。
4. 不定式的省略
如果句子前面已出现过同样的动词,为了避免重复,常省去不定式动词,只保留不定式符号“to”。主要用在以下方面:
(1) 在hate, hope, like, love, mean, plan, try, want, wish等动词以及glad, pleased形容词之后。 如:
—Did you get a ticket?
—你买到票了吗?
—No. I tried to. But there were not any left.
—没有。我去买过,但却卖完了。
(2) 情态动词ought to, used to, need后。如:
—Do you smoke? —Not now, but I used to.
—你抽烟吗? —现在不抽了,但过去常常抽的。
Why hurry? There’s no need to.
急什么? 没有必要。
(3) 类似于助动词,情态动词的be able to, be going to, have to 之后。如:
I wanted to go but I wasn’t able to.
我本想去的,但没能去。
—Have you fed the cat? —No, but I’m just going to.
—你喂猫了吗? —没有,但我正要去喂。
(4) 有时to可以省略,也可以保留。如:
Royce may go if he likes (to).
罗伊斯如果想去也可以去。



                               
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