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薄冰英语语法 Unit 13 过去分词

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普乐书店 发表于 2011-7-15 19:16:56 | 显示全部楼层 |阅读模式
第一章、过去分词在句子中的成分
过去分词(The Past Participle)是一种非限定动词。它通常由动词原形加-ed构成,少数不规则动词的过去分词为不规则形式。过去分词一般只有一种形式,但是有的不规则动词的过去分词有两种形式。在各类应试中,过去分词都是一项重要的测试内容。
1. 过去分词(短语)作表语
The traverllers were completely exhausted.
游客完全筋疲力尽了。
The scientists were excited about the result of the experiment.
科学家们对实验结果感到很兴奋。
Never touch an electric wire when it is broken.
绝不要动断了的电线。
We are determined to build a reservoir here in the shortest possible time.
我们决心尽快地在这里建一水库。
I am convinced of his honesty.
我深信他的诚实。
Are you satisfied that I am telling the truth?
你相信我说的是实话吗?
2.过去分词(短语)作定语
(1) 单个的过去分词作定语时通常前置。及物动词的过去分词具有被动和完成意义。如:
the unexpected loss意外损失planned economy计划经济
a complicated problem复杂问题changed conditions改变了的情况
armed forces武装部队canned food罐装食品
stricken area灾区a delighted look高兴的神色

(2) 不及物动词的过去分词具有主动和完成意义。如:
fallen leaves落叶faded flowers凋谢的花
newly arrived goods新到的商品the exploded bomb已爆炸了的炸弹
the risen sun升起的太阳departed friends离去的朋友
an escaped prisoners逃犯a retired teacher退休教师
retured students归国留学生an expired passports过期护照

(3) 过去分词短语作定语时通常后置,其意义相当于一个定语从句,但比从句简洁,多用于书面语。如:
The concert given by the symphony was a great success.
该交响乐团举行的音乐会大为成功。
A drop of water seen through microscope is filled with living things.
通过显微镜能看到一滴水里充满了各种生物。
(4) 以“名词+过去分词”或“副词+过去分词”组成的复合形容词作前置定语。如:
state-owned enterprises 国有企业
a poverty-stricken plac e贫穷的地方
quick-frozen food 速冻食品
a much-needed reform 急需进行的改革
3. 过去分词(短语)作状语
(1) 过去分词(短语)作时间状语 Seen under a microscope ,a fresh snowflake has a delicate six-pointed shape.
在显微镜下观察,刚飘下的雪花呈精巧的六角形。
(=when it is seen under the microscope)
When heated, ice will be changed into water.
当冰受热时,它就会变成水。
(=when it is heated)
(2) 过去分词(短语)作原因状语
Many of us, being so excited ,could not go to sleep that night
我们很多人是那样的激动,那天晚上都没有睡着。
(=because we were so excited)
Born and bred in the countryside,sister Carrie was bewildered by the big city.
嘉莉妹妹生长在乡下,对这座大城市感到迷惑。
Gone from home so long,they joyously embraced their mates of boyhood.
他们久离家乡,高兴地拥抱他们的儿时伙伴。
Raised in an atmosphere of love,Shaw is always willing to help others.
肖在充满了爱的环境中长大,所以他总是愿意帮助别人。
(3) 过去分词(短语)作条件状语
Some metropolitan newspapers would make sizable volumes if printed in book form.
如果印成书的形式,有些大城市的报纸的销量会相当可观。
Seen in this light,the matter is not as serious as people generally suppose.
从这个角度看,问题并不像人们一般料想的那样严重。
Given better attention,the cabbages could grow even faster.
白菜照管得好会生长得更快。
Considered from this point,the question is of great importance.
从这一点看,这个问题很重要。
(4) 过去分词(短语)作让步状语
Mocked at by everybody,he had my sympathy.
人人都嘲笑他,但我却同情他。
Left to his own devices,Charles did not relax his efforts.
查尔斯虽孤立无援,但他并没有放松自己的努力。
Although exhausted by the climb,he continued his journey.
他虽然爬得很累,但他仍继续前进。
(5) 过去分词(短语)作方式状语
I finished the work as requested.
我按要求完成了工作。
As scheduled, the two friends met on May 10.
根据安排,两个朋友于5月10日见了面。
That fellow was walking with a limp as if injured.
那家伙一瘸一拐地走着,似乎受了伤。
但要注意:过去分词(短语)作方式状语时,前面通常带有as, as if等从属连词,此时可视为省略的让步状语从句。
(6) 过去分词(短语)作伴随状语
Found in all parts of the state,pines are the most common trees in Georgia.
松树在佐治亚州随处可见,是该州最普通的树木。
He went to work,burdened with worries.
他心事重重地上班去了。
The headmaster went into the lab, followed by the foreign guests
校长走进了实验室,后面跟着外宾。
  第二章、过去分词的结构
1. 过去分词独立结构
过去分词有时可有其独立主语,二者构成一种独立分词结构。过去分词独立结构多用于书面语中,常用作状语,用来表示时间、条件、原因、伴随情况等。如:
He rushed into the room,his face covered with sweat.
他满脸是汗跑进屋来。(表伴随)
This done,we went home.
做完此事,我们就回家了。(表时间)
All our savings gone,the couple started looking for jobs.
积蓄全部用完了,这对夫妻就开始找工作。(表原因)
That point settled,the speaker went on to the next one.
那个问题讲完了,演讲人继续讲下一个问题。(表时间)
2. with/without+宾语+过去分词表示伴随情况的独立结构
With everything taken into consideration,we all think this is a very good plan.
每件事都考虑到了,我们都认为这是一项不错的计划。
With different methods used,different results are obtained.
采用不同的方法,得到不同的结果。
She went angrily away without a word spoken.
她一个字也没说,就生气地走了。
3. 过去分词(短语)作宾语补足语
(1) 过去分词(短语)在感官动词和使役动词等之后作宾语补足语,这些词语有:
have 让,使keep 使处于某状态get 使得
see 看见hear 听见find 发现
feel 感觉到leave 使处于某状态make 使
want 想要start 引起notice 注意
observe 观察watch 注视set 使处于某状态
如:
The work left him exhausted.
这个活使得他筋疲力尽。
The doorkeeper heard the chain and bolts withdrawn.
看门人听见门上的链和拴被拉开了。
The tenant found the house renovated.
房客看到房子已整修过了。
It’s better to leave some things unsaid.
有些事倒是不说的好。
I don’t want my name linked with him.
我不要把我的名字和他联系在一起。
The person concerned should like this matter settled immediately.
当事人希望此事立刻得到解决。
(2)过去分词(短语)在使役动词get或have之后作宾语补足语,表示的动作往往是由别人完成的。如:
I had my car repaired
我把我的车修好了。(别人修的)
I had my hair cut
我理发了。(别人给我理的)
We must get the television set repaired
我们必须把电视机修好。(被别人修)
He had his window broken to pieces.
他的窗户给打破了。(被他人打破)



                               
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